How to Perform Rest API using Retrofit in Android (Part-2)

How to Perform Rest API using Retrofit in Android

In this post, I will show you How to use Retrofit in Android. Retrofit is a new born baby of web services such as AsyncTask, JSONParsing and Volley.In Previous Part, I showed the PHP Scripts to perform basic CRUD operations. In this part, Contains the informations about how to perform Retrofit Operations in Android.

Project Structure:

Create New Project in Android Studio with blank activity as in the following.

We need Retrofit Library for working with that. For Android Studio you just need to paste below line of code under dependency of build.gradle file.
compile 'com.squareup.retrofit:retrofit:1.9.0'
For eclipse users download jar file from below link and add to you project.
Download jar

AndroidManifest.xml

Don't forget to add the following permission in your manifest file
<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.INTERNET"/>

AppConfig.class

Create AppConfig.class and replace it with the following code.It is used as helper class for web services
package androidmads.example.retrofitexample.helper;

import com.google.gson.JsonElement;

import retrofit.Callback;
import retrofit.client.Response;
import retrofit.http.Field;
import retrofit.http.FormUrlEncoded;
import retrofit.http.GET;
import retrofit.http.POST;

public class AppConfig {

 public interface insert {
  @FormUrlEncoded
  @POST("/personal_details/insertData.php")
  void insertData(
    @Field("name") String name,
    @Field("age") String age,
    @Field("mobile") String mobile,
    @Field("email") String email,
    Callback<Response> callback);
 }

 public interface read {
  @GET("/personal_details/displayAll.php")
  void readData(Callback<JsonElement> callback);
 }

 public interface delete {
  @FormUrlEncoded
  @POST("/personal_details/deleteData.php")
  void deleteData(
    @Field("id") String id,
    Callback<Response> callback);
 }

 public interface update {
  @FormUrlEncoded
  @POST("/personal_details/updateData.php")
  void updateData(
    @Field("id") String id,
    @Field("name") String name,
    @Field("age") String age,
    @Field("mobile") String mobile,
    @Field("email") String email,
    Callback<Response> callback);
 }
}

activity_main.xml

Create activity_main.xml and replace it with the following code
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
 xmlns:tools="http://schemas.android.com/tools"
 android:layout_width="match_parent"
 android:layout_height="match_parent"
 android:orientation="vertical"
 android:padding="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
 tools:context="example.retrofit.MainActivity">

 <EditText
  android:id="@+id/name"
  android:layout_width="match_parent"
  android:layout_height="wrap_content"
  android:gravity="center"
  android:hint="@string/name_hint"
  android:inputType="textPersonName" />
   
 <EditText
  android:id="@+id/age"
  android:layout_width="match_parent"
  android:layout_height="wrap_content"
  android:gravity="center"
  android:hint="@string/age_hint"
  android:inputType="number" />
 
 <EditText
  android:id="@+id/mobile"
  android:layout_width="match_parent"
  android:layout_height="wrap_content"
  android:gravity="center"
  android:hint="@string/mob_no_hint"
  android:inputType="phone"  />
 
 <EditText
  android:id="@+id/mail"
  android:layout_width="match_parent"
  android:layout_height="wrap_content"
  android:gravity="center"
  android:hint="@string/mail_hint"
  android:inputType="textEmailAddress" />

 <Button
  android:gravity="center"
  android:id="@+id/insert"
  android:layout_width="match_parent"
  android:layout_height="wrap_content"
  android:text="@string/ins_hint" />

 <Button
  android:gravity="center"
  android:id="@+id/retrieve"
  android:layout_width="match_parent"
  android:layout_height="wrap_content"
  android:text="@string/read_hint" />

</LinearLayout>

MainActivity.class

Create MainActivity.class and replace it with the following code
package androidmads.example.retrofitexample;

import android.content.Intent;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.support.v7.app.AppCompatActivity;
import android.util.Log;
import android.view.Menu;
import android.view.MenuItem;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.Button;
import android.widget.EditText;
import android.widget.Toast;

import org.json.JSONException;
import org.json.JSONObject;

import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;

import androidmads.example.retrofitexample.helper.AppConfig;
import retrofit.Callback;
import retrofit.RestAdapter;
import retrofit.RetrofitError;
import retrofit.client.Response;

public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity {

 String BASE_URL = "http://192.168.1.32";

 EditText edt_name, edt_age, edt_mobile, edt_mail;
 Button btn_insert, btn_display;

 @Override
 protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
  super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
  setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);

  edt_name = (EditText) findViewById(R.id.name);
  edt_age = (EditText) findViewById(R.id.age);
  edt_mobile = (EditText) findViewById(R.id.mobile);
  edt_mail = (EditText) findViewById(R.id.mail);
  btn_insert = (Button) findViewById(R.id.insert);
  btn_display = (Button) findViewById(R.id.retrieve);

  btn_insert.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {
   @Override
   public void onClick(View v) {
    insert_data();
   }
  });

  btn_display.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {
   @Override
   public void onClick(View v) {
    Intent i = new Intent(getApplicationContext(),DisplayData.class);
    startActivity(i);
   }
  });
 }

 public void insert_data() {

  RestAdapter adapter = new RestAdapter.Builder()
    .setEndpoint(BASE_URL) //Setting the Root URL
    .build();

  AppConfig.insert api = adapter.create(AppConfig.insert.class);

  api.insertData(
    edt_name.getText().toString(),
    edt_age.getText().toString(),
    edt_mobile.getText().toString(),
    edt_mail.getText().toString(),
    new Callback() {
     @Override
     public void success(Response result, Response response) {

      try {

      BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(result.getBody().in()));
      String resp;
      resp = reader.readLine();
      Log.d("success", "" + resp);

      JSONObject jObj = new JSONObject(resp);
      int success = jObj.getInt("success");

      if(success == 1){
        Toast.makeText(getApplicationContext(), "Successfully inserted", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
      } else{
         Toast.makeText(getApplicationContext(), "Insertion Failed", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
      }

     } catch (IOException e) {
      Log.d("Exception", e.toString());
     } catch (JSONException e) {
      Log.d("JsonException", e.toString());
     }
    }

    @Override
    public void failure(RetrofitError error) {
      Toast.makeText(MainActivity.this, error.toString(), Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();
     }
    }
  );
 }

 @Override
 public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) {
  // Inflate the menu; this adds items to the action bar if it is present.
  getMenuInflater().inflate(R.menu.menu_main, menu);
  return true;
 }

 @Override
 public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) {
  // Handle action bar item clicks here. The action bar will
  // automatically handle clicks on the Home/Up button, so long
  // as you specify a parent activity in AndroidManifest.xml.
  int id = item.getItemId();

  //noinspection SimplifiableIfStatement
  if (id == R.id.action_settings) {
   return true;
  }

  return super.onOptionsItemSelected(item);
 }
}

DisplayData.class

Create DisplayData.class and replace it with the following code
package androidmads.example.retrofitexample;

import android.content.Intent;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.support.v7.app.AppCompatActivity;
import android.util.Log;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.AdapterView;
import android.widget.ListView;
import android.widget.Toast;

import com.google.gson.JsonElement;

import org.json.JSONArray;
import org.json.JSONException;
import org.json.JSONObject;

import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;
import java.util.ArrayList;

import androidmads.example.retrofitexample.helper.AppConfig;
import androidmads.example.retrofitexample.helper.ListViewAdapter;
import retrofit.Callback;
import retrofit.RestAdapter;
import retrofit.RetrofitError;
import retrofit.client.Response;

public class DisplayData extends AppCompatActivity {

 String BASE_URL = "http://192.168.1.32";

 ListView details_list;
 ListViewAdapter displayAdapter;
 ArrayList id = new ArrayList<>();
 ArrayList name = new ArrayList<>();
 ArrayList age = new ArrayList<>();
 ArrayList mobile = new ArrayList<>();
 ArrayList email = new ArrayList<>();

 @Override
 protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
  super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
  setContentView(R.layout.activity_list);

  details_list = (ListView) findViewById(R.id.retrieve);
  displayAdapter = new ListViewAdapter(getApplicationContext(), id, name, age, mobile, email);
  displayData();

  details_list.setOnItemClickListener(new AdapterView.OnItemClickListener() {
   @Override
   public void onItemClick(AdapterView<?> parent, View view, int position, long ids) {
    Intent i = new Intent(getApplicationContext(),UpdateData.class);
    i.putExtra("id",id.get(position));
    i.putExtra("name",name.get(position));
    i.putExtra("age",age.get(position));
    i.putExtra("mobile",mobile.get(position));
    i.putExtra("email", email.get(position));
    startActivity(i);

   }
  });

  details_list.setOnItemLongClickListener(new AdapterView.OnItemLongClickListener(){
   @Override
   public boolean onItemLongClick(AdapterView<?> parent, View view, int position, long ids) {
    delete(id.get(position));
    return true;
   }
  });
 }

 public void displayData() {

  RestAdapter adapter = new RestAdapter.Builder()
    .setEndpoint(BASE_URL) //Setting the Root URL
    .build();

  AppConfig.read api = adapter.create(AppConfig.read.class);
  api.readData(new Callback() {
      @Override
      public void success(JsonElement result, Response response) {

       String myResponse = result.toString();
       Log.d("response", "" + myResponse);
       try {
        JSONObject jObj = new JSONObject(myResponse);
        int success = jObj.getInt("success");
        if (success == 1) {
         JSONArray jsonArray = jObj.getJSONArray("details");
         for (int i = 0; i < jsonArray.length(); i++) {
         JSONObject jo = jsonArray.getJSONObject(i);
         id.add(jo.getString("id"));       name.add(jo.getString("name"));       age.add(jo.getString("age"));       mobile.add(jo.getString("mobile"));       email.add(jo.getString("email"));
          details_list.setAdapter(displayAdapter);
        } else {
        Toast.makeText(getApplicationContext(), "No Details Found", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
        }
       } catch (JSONException e) {
        Log.d("exception", e.toString());
       }
      }

      @Override
      public void failure(RetrofitError error) {
       Log.d("Failure", error.toString());
       Toast.makeText(DisplayData.this, error.toString(), Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();
      }
     }
  );
 }

 public void delete(String id){

  RestAdapter adapter = new RestAdapter.Builder()
    .setEndpoint(BASE_URL) //Setting the Root URL
    .build();

  AppConfig.delete api = adapter.create(AppConfig.delete.class);
  api.deleteData(
    id,
    new Callback() {
     @Override
     public void success(Response result, Response response) {

      try {

       BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(result.getBody().in()));
       String resp;
       resp = reader.readLine();
       Log.d("success", "" + resp);

       JSONObject jObj = new JSONObject(resp);
       int success = jObj.getInt("success");

       if(success == 1){
         Toast.makeText(getApplicationContext(), "Successfully deleted", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
        recreate();
       } else{
        Toast.makeText(getApplicationContext(), "Deletion Failed", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
       }
      } catch (IOException e) {
       Log.d("Exception", e.toString());
      } catch (JSONException e) {
       Log.d("JsonException", e.toString());
      }
     }

     @Override
     public void failure(RetrofitError error) {
      Toast.makeText(DisplayData.this, error.toString(), Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();
      }
     }
   );

  }

}

ListViewAdapter.class

Create ListViewAdapter.class and replace it with the following code
package androidmads.example.retrofitexample.helper;

import android.annotation.SuppressLint;
import android.content.Context;
import android.view.LayoutInflater;
import android.view.View;
import android.view.ViewGroup;
import android.widget.BaseAdapter;
import android.widget.TextView;

import java.util.ArrayList;
 
import androidmads.example.retrofitexample.R;

public class ListViewAdapter extends BaseAdapter {

 private final Context context;
 private final ArrayList id;
 private final ArrayList name;
 private final ArrayList age;
 private final ArrayList mobile;
 private final ArrayList email;
 LayoutInflater layoutInflater;

 public ListViewAdapter(Context ctx, ArrayList id, ArrayList name, ArrayList age,
      ArrayList mobile, ArrayList email) {
  this.context = ctx;
  this.id = id;
  this.name = name;
  this.age = age;
  this.mobile = mobile;
  this.email = email;

 }

 @Override
 public int getCount() {
  return id.size();
 }

 @Override
 public Object getItem(int position) {
  return position;
 }

 @Override
 public long getItemId(int position) {
  return position;
 }

 @SuppressLint("ViewHolder")
 @Override
 public View getView(final int position, View view, ViewGroup parent) {

  Holder holder = new Holder();
  layoutInflater = (LayoutInflater) context.getSystemService
    (Context.LAYOUT_INFLATER_SERVICE);

  view = layoutInflater.inflate(R.layout.list_item, null);
  holder.txt_name=(TextView)view.findViewById(R.id.name);
  holder.txt_age=(TextView)view.findViewById(R.id.age);
  holder.txt_mobile=(TextView)view.findViewById(R.id.mobile);
  holder.txt_mail=(TextView)view.findViewById(R.id.mail);

  holder.txt_name.setText(name.get(position));
  holder.txt_age.setText(age.get(position));
  holder.txt_mobile.setText(mobile.get(position));
  holder.txt_mail.setText(email.get(position));

  return view;
 }

 static class Holder {
  TextView txt_name,txt_age,txt_mobile,txt_mail;
 }
}

UpdateData.class

Create UpdateData.class and replace it with the following code
package androidmads.example.retrofitexample;

import android.content.Intent;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.support.v7.app.AppCompatActivity;
import android.util.Log;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.AdapterView;
import android.widget.Button;
import android.widget.EditText;
import android.widget.ListView;
import android.widget.Toast;

import com.google.gson.JsonElement;

import org.json.JSONArray;
import org.json.JSONException;
import org.json.JSONObject;

import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;
import java.util.ArrayList;

import androidmads.example.retrofitexample.helper.AppConfig;
import androidmads.example.retrofitexample.helper.ListViewAdapter;
import retrofit.Callback;
import retrofit.RestAdapter;
import retrofit.RetrofitError;
import retrofit.client.Response;

public class UpdateData extends AppCompatActivity {

 String BASE_URL = "http://192.168.1.32";

 EditText edt_name, edt_age, edt_mobile, edt_mail;
 Button btn_update;

 String id, name, age, mobile, email;
 
 @Override
 protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
  super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
  setContentView(R.layout.activity_update);

  edt_name = (EditText) findViewById(R.id.name);
  edt_age = (EditText) findViewById(R.id.age);
  edt_mobile = (EditText) findViewById(R.id.mobile);
  edt_mail = (EditText) findViewById(R.id.mail);
  btn_update = (Button) findViewById(R.id.update);

  Intent i = getIntent();
  id = i.getStringExtra("id");
  name = i.getStringExtra("name");
  age = i.getStringExtra("age");
  mobile = i.getStringExtra("mobile");
  email = i.getStringExtra("email");

  edt_name.setText(name);
  edt_age.setText(age);
  edt_mobile.setText(mobile);
  edt_mail.setText(email);

  btn_update.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {
   @Override
   public void onClick(View v) {
     
    // "id" is used as a reference for modification in Data
    update_data(id);

   }
  });

 }

 public void update_data(String id) {

  RestAdapter adapter = new RestAdapter.Builder()
    .setEndpoint(BASE_URL) //Setting the Root URL
    .build();

  AppConfig.update api = adapter.create(AppConfig.update.class);
  api.updateData(
    id,
    edt_name.getText().toString(),
    edt_age.getText().toString(),
    edt_mobile.getText().toString(),
    edt_mail.getText().toString(),
    new Callback() {
     @Override
     public void success(Response result, Response response) {

      try {

       BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(result.getBody().in()));
       String resp;
       resp = reader.readLine();
       Log.d("success", "" + resp);
       JSONObject jObj = new JSONObject(resp);
       int success = jObj.getInt("success");

       if (success == 1) {
       Toast.makeText(getApplicationContext(), "Successfully updated", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
        startActivity(new Intent(getApplicationContext(),DisplayData.class));
        finish();
       } else {
         Toast.makeText(getApplicationContext(), "Update Failed", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
       }
      } catch (IOException e) {
       Log.d("Exception", e.toString());
      } catch (JSONException e) {
       Log.d("JsonException", e.toString());
      }
     }

     @Override
     public void failure(RetrofitError error) {
      Toast.makeText(UpdateData.this, error.toString(), Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();
     }
    }
  );
 }

}

References:

  1. MakeInfo:Retrofit Android Tutorial
  2. Retrofit Android Example

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18 comments

comments
Anonymous
4 May 2016 at 14:37 delete

So where is the delete?

Reply
avatar
7 May 2016 at 11:29 delete

This can be used for DELETE response in Retrofit
@DELETE("/personal_details/deleteData.php")
void deleteItem(@Field("id") int itemId, Callback callback);

Reply
avatar
26 May 2016 at 20:35 delete

Thank for your tutorial, one question for how to update or put/patch method for the images or photo ?

Reply
avatar
26 May 2016 at 20:37 delete

Thank you for your tutorials I'll appreciate the details, but only one question how to update the image

Reply
avatar
26 May 2016 at 20:37 delete

Thank you for your tutorials I'll appreciate the details, but only one question how to update the image

Reply
avatar
27 May 2016 at 10:48 delete

Use Base64 encoding method to convert bitmap to string
and for updating images use @PUT annotation instead of @POST

@PUT("/{path}")
String foo(@Path("path") String thePath);

Reply
avatar
27 May 2016 at 14:00 delete

I mean insert for image ?thank your quick response

Reply
avatar
5 October 2016 at 12:54 delete

can i see your php codes please? thank you

Reply
avatar
5 October 2016 at 21:45 delete

I already provided my PHP code in https://androidmads.blogspot.in/2015/11/how-to-perform-rest-api-using-retrofit.html

Reply
avatar
7 October 2016 at 07:30 delete

thank you sir. just last one thing i have an error in displaying data it says

retrofit.RetrofitError: com.google.gson.
JsonSyntaxException:com.google.gson.
stream.MalformedJsonException: Use
JsonReader.setLenient(true) to accept
malformed JSON at line 2 column 2 path $

p.s: i use your project, again thank you.

Reply
avatar
29 March 2017 at 13:08 delete

Download Full Source Code Problem
I downloaded the project file but the rar fails. Could you reload it?

Reply
avatar
8 April 2017 at 22:59 delete

Please Check the Download Button Again.

Thanks for visiting. Keep on Visiting AndroidMads

Reply
avatar
11 April 2017 at 14:49 delete

sir please can you create login and registration form using retrofit please i should urgently

Reply
avatar
2 May 2017 at 12:06 delete

nk you sir. just last one thing i have an error in displaying data it says

retrofit.RetrofitError: com.google.gson.
JsonSyntaxException:com.google.gson.
stream.MalformedJsonException: Use
JsonReader.setLenient(true) to accept
malformed JSON at line 2 column 2 path $

p.s: i use your project, again thank you.

Reply
avatar
2 May 2017 at 21:36 delete

This type of error occurs due to the unwanted characters in your JSON response. To avoid this use
"JsonReader reader = new JsonReader(new StringReader(result1));
reader.setLenient(true);"

Reply
avatar
16 May 2017 at 11:39 delete

Given so much info in it, These type of articles keeps the users interest in the website, and keep on sharing more ... good luck.Android Training in chennai |Android Training in Velachery

Reply
avatar
6 July 2018 at 05:51 delete

Hi MUSHTAQ M.A,
I'm trying to use your tip, but it still not working, I would like to know if I'm using right.


authenticationModelCall.enqueue(new Callback() {
@Override
public void onResponse(Call call, Response response) {
JsonReader reader = new JsonReader(new StringReader(response.body()));
reader.setLenient(true);

//...

Reply
avatar

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